This is more common with closed cell foam, but it happens with open cell foam, too. Since closed cell foam has a higher R-value per inch, installers generally spray 2" in walls and 3" in rooflines to meet the energy code requirements of R-13 and R-19, respectively. (I'm not going to dive into the energy code here, but these numbers apply to many climate zones, the latter being allowed under the UA tradeoffs rule. See the Energy Nerd's blog on this topic if you want to argue.)
once the foam is installed correctly, it is a inert plastic not much different than the foam cushions you sit on. there is not a health rick unless you have off ratio uncured foam that has not mixed properly. the foam is absolutely a health risk in its raw forms before it is mixed and cured. You should not be in the building without proper respirators and eye protection. The spray foam industry should be controlled and regulated by the same standards, testing and inspections that framing ,electrical and plumbing are. until that happens then you will have idiots with spray rigs ruining peoples homes and ruining the market for honest foam contractors that know how to price a job fairly and complete it correctly.
Most flat roofs are not perfectly sloped, causing water to puddle in some areas, in particular around the drains and scuppers. Many roof coatings are not rated or warranted for "ponding water", and thus might fail pre-maturely if exposed to standing water over long periods of time. Serious consideration should be given to the performance and limitations of the coating being selected. Some manufacturers will warranty their coatings including ponding water. Typically, manufacturers for acrylic roof coatings do not include warranties for ponding water, while some polyurethane and silicone roof coatings manufacturers will.
Solvent-based polyurethane coatings have excellent adhesion and when used as a base coat over asphalt, EPDM, TPO or PVC, it eliminates the need for a primer. The resulting savings on labor and material more than offsets the higher cost of the product. When top coated with silicone, it gives you the best of both worlds. It's also an excellent gutter and RV coating.
I am an Architect in Toronto. I am designing a new roof addition to a row house building. Because of existing conditions and the shape of the new roof. It may be easiest to use closed cell spray foam within the areas of the joists. My question is when spray foam is used in this situation do I need to worry about how the joist members may be thermal bridges? It is not common to provide a little bit of rigid insulation to protect the joist members? The additional layer of outboard insulation will require an extra layer of plywood above the insulation which will add to cost.
Here's a simpler, less expensive alternative: Cut some 2-inch-thick rigid-foam insulation and glue it to the subfloor between the joists or support it with nails driven partway into the joists. Then fill any gaps between the edges of the foam boards and the joists using the canned spray foam sold at home centers or hardware stores. An even easier option is to nail the foam panels against the bottom edge of the joists and seal the joints with canned foam, but you'll lose some headroom and access to any pipes and wires between the joists. As with spray-foam kits, protect yourself and the floor from the dripping globs of canned foam. A full face shield, gloves, and a hat would be a good start.
Air infiltration and exfiltration within a home contributes to almost 99% of moisture migration. Restricting air movement stops moisture accumulation so that the possibility of mold growth is less likely. Combined with a properly sized HVAC system, spray foam insulation helps control the indoor humidity levels to minimize moisture and condensation. Reducing moisture and controlling humidity can also add years to the life expectancy of a home, plus contribute to a healthier indoor environment. Finally, it also deters pests, making it difficult for them to nest.
R-value is the term given to thermal resistance to heat flow. The higher the R-value of an insulation product, the more effective the insulation properties. Spray polyurethane foam comes in a range of densities and cel structure. Low density foams are referred to as Open Cel SPF while higher density foams are referred to as Closed Cel foam. 1.8-2 pound polyurethane foam has the highest R-value of readily available spray foam insulation used in homes and buildings.